Wednesday, October 18, 2006

Andrea Jung,
"A Wonder Woman"

In the global economy, women make up 40% of the world's workforce according to the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations. Moreover, women are paid only 76% of what men get paid for. Coalition of Labor Union Women highlights that this gap adds up to more than $300 000 for the average woman's career translating into a difference between "owning a home or renting, sending [the] kids to college vs. sending them to flip burgers, and a decent retirement vs. penury in old age". Another striking fact is that women employed in professional and related occupations accounted for 24.7% of all working women in 2005 relating to the Development for Professional Employees' Fact Sheet.

Andrea Jung is one of those women employed in a professional occupation that made a difference in an organization's performance and gave an example that women are as competent and competitive as men. She worked for retailers such as Neiman Marcus and Bloomingdale's, and in 1994, she joined Avon Products Inc., a leading international skin - care and beauty products company. Her original task at Avon was to create a global brand. Jung integrated and standardized the company's logo, packaging, and ads to create a uniform image, and she pushed for the current corporate slogan, "The company for women". Based on her success in improving Avon's marketing focus, the company's board appointed her chairman and CEO in 1999. Since Jung took over as CEO, "sales have jumped 45 percent". Andrea Jung demonstrated that if women are given the power to make decisions they can fully transform any company into a profitable business.

Since Andrea Jung is an individual who has "distinguished [herself] through extraordinary achievements in [her] profession", she is a great candidate for the University of Southern California's Doctor of Science Honorary degree. This is the highest award that the University of Southern California confers which is awarded annually at the spring commencement ceremony. The honorary degree is given "to honor individuals who have distinguished themselves through extraordinary achievements in scholarship, the professions, or other creative activities, whether or not they are widely known by the general public", "to honor alumni and other individuals who have made outstanding contributions to the welfare and development of USC or the communities of which they are a part", "to recognize exceptional acts of philanthropy to the university and/or on the national or world scene" and "to elevate the university in the eyes of the world by honoring individuals who are widely known and highly regarded for achievements in their respective fields of endeavor". Ms. Jung is sitting on top of a unique Fortune 500 company with more women in management positions than any other company worldwide. In fact, "half of Avon's board of directors are women". Although women make up not even half of America's labor force, Andrea Jung has transformed not only the company but also its "men and good ol' boys first" mentality common at most companies.

Andrea Jung has showed that regardless of the obstacles she was confronted with such as being a woman in a world dominated by men and a minority, a Chinese-American, she got a position that not a lot of women have ever held. The publishers John Gettings, David Johnson, Borgna Brunner, and Chris Frantz underline in their article Wonder Women that Andrea Jung is a "wonder woman" and one of only two women CEOs. These authors even underline this fact by mentioning that "90 of Fortune 500 companies don't have any women corporate officers". Thanks to Ms. Jung' s creativity and persistence, Avon was "ranked #312 on the Fo+rtune 500 list" and its beauty products were sold in 135 countries worldwide with sales of $5.2 billion a year . In 2001, Andrea Jung was elected chairman of Avon's board of directors and from 2001–2005 she served as the first woman elected chair of the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association. She currently serves on the Board of Directors of the General Electric Company and is a member of the New York Presbyterian Hospital Board of Trustees and the Catalyst Board of Directors. In 2005, being such a powerful figure in the business world, Ms. Jung was ranked #5 on Fortune magazine's "50 Most Powerful Women in Business” list and has been on that list since its inception. Also in 2005, The Wall Street Journal ranked Andrea Jung #3 on its "50 Women to Watch in Business” list. In late 2004, she was named one of "10 Prominent People to Watch in 2005" by Newsweek magazine. In January 2003, she was featured in BusinessWeek as one of the "Best Managers of the Year". Andrea Jung has demonstrated that she is an outstanding professional and the University of Southern California can only accentuate its distinctiveness by giving a Honorary degree to such a fulfilled person in the professional field who has managed to become a CEO of one the Fortune 5oo companies.

"In bestowing an honorary degree, a university makes an explicit statement to its students and the world about the qualities of character and attainment it admires most"(Freedman, 117). USC' s role and mission is "[to develop] human beings and society as a whole through the cultivation and enrichment of the human mind and spirit". Moreover, its Marshall School which ranks in the "Top 25" business institutions in the world strives "to provide guidance to students with their academic and personal development". Awarding Andrea Jung the honorary degree will demonstrate the University of Southern California's recognition and appreciation of exceptional professional achievements. In addition, the university will prove that it appreciates women' s accomplishments as well as men's which is not obvious if we consider its past nominees since just one of the past ten awarded individuals is a woman. Looking at USC' s past recipients such as Antonio Villaraigosa, "a mayor of Los Angeles, former city councilmember and speaker of the California State Assembly" and Neil Armstrong, "the first person to walk on the moon, a dedicated citizen, educator, and war veteran", an individual can acknowledge that the university emphasizes intellectual distinction as well as public service, dedication, and innovation.

James Freedman, president emeritus of the University of Iowa and Dartmouth College, finishes his chapter "Conferring Honorary Degrees" from his book Liberal Education and the Public Cost by writing that "in conferring honorary degrees, [he] hoped to persuade [the] students and commencement guests that each honorand' s character and attainment [are] worthy of emulation and admiration"(Freedman, 123). Going over Ms. Jung's biographical websites, every reader will notice that each website contains different and as much significant and important information on her outstanding achievements as the previous one. Starting from her childhood, "she was raised for a solid career in a well-paying profession". In addition, the "executive sweet" took piano lessons, classes in Mandarin language, and graduated from Princeton where she could "cultivate her character and refine her cranium". Ms. Jung's list of responsibilities are enough to impress even the "snootiest" individuals. She oversees marketing, advertising and product development of Avon product for entire United States, while supervising more than 45 000 employees. The Golden Sea website mentions that "on her slender shoulders now rests the responsibility of not only maintaining but growing the [Avon's] $2 billion in annual sales". Those facts are more than enough to make every student and faculty completely sure that Andrea Jung deserves an Honorary degree and that there is no risk that "the recipient will turn out in retrospect to have been ill-chosen"(Freedman, 130).

USC strives constantly "for excellence in teaching knowledge and skills to [its] students, while at the same time helping them to acquire wisdom and insight, love of truth and beauty, moral discernment, understanding of self, and respect and appreciation for others". Andrea Jung is an individual who also strives for excellence in everything she does. She is not only a distinguished professional but also a responsible mother and wife and she takes this responsibility very seriously. She takes her five - year - old daughter to the bus stop every morning and she returns by 7.30 p.m. for dinner at home with her husband and daughter. Even overwhelmed with task, she finds time to participate on the Board of Trustees of the Fashion Institute of Technology and the Board of Directors of the American Management Association. The secret to her success is "passion, commitment, and knowing what [a person] wants". In an interview, Ms. Jung says "[she] knew that [marketing] was what she wanted" and "it got into [her] blood".

Ms. Jung has a great expert power after working for exclusive retailers like Neiman Marcus and I Magnin. However, her incessant desire to explore new areas of her professional field, made her decide to try her hand in the less glamorous but far larger mass market segment. She expanded the number of products offered to long - time customers by introducing a line of lingerie and casual wear. In addition, "[Avon] was the first one to come out with an alpha hydroxide acid product", she says while explaining the need to constantly be on the lookout for new products. " You have to combine instinct with a good business acumen", Jung says. "You just can't be creative, and you just can't be analytical".

Her desire to invent new and improved products and her creativity to find out ways to make more money from her current customers are indicators that she is really passionate in what she is doing mentioning it multiple times in her interview Glass Ceiling with Stephen Adler. She admits it by stating: " I have a love for this business. I have an enormous amount of passion for it. Since I'm a mother and a wife, I have to have passion or the frustration would win out." In the commencement speech that Ms. Jung has to deliver, she can talk about how to be successful not only in the business field but also in the personal life. She can give insights about the globalization and how it continues to present new and diverse markets to the company and how it changed the way Avon does business by making it more efficient. In her speech, Andrea Jung can mention about the path that she undertook to become such a prosperous individual and how young people can take control of their time and become economically independent by enrolling in Avon's leadership program and how this program teaches them to be entrepreneurs. Moreover, she can address Avon's operational efficiency with such a large workforce of around 5 million employees in order to highlight how big companies stay competitive in what they do.

Mike W. Martin, a professor of philosophy and the author of the book Meaningful Work, tries to give the reader guidelines about how to measure the life of a professional. "In addition to earning money to pursue interests outside work, [professionals] seek activities and relationships at the workplace that are inherently meaningful in terms of our fundamental values...linked to ideals of religion, aesthetics, intellectual achievement, physical excellence, and technical merit"(11). Andrea Jung is a professional that achieves a "meaningful work" because she finds its work " rich in intrinsic and extrinsic satisfactions" such as power, advanced expertise, and social reputation. She admits that "Once you fall in love with what Avon can be - not only what it is, but what it can be - [an individual] see it as one of the biggest strategic and corporate opportunities for, not a turnaround, but a makeover, in the history of companies. That's a professional turn-on to [her]". The University of Southern California should not only provide "professional learning" but also insights in how a student can choose the appropriate major that will be extrinsically and intrinsically satisfying in order to get an education that corresponds to his or her personality, values, and morals.

According to Mike Martin, these professionals' sources of motivation can be grouped in three broad categories: "craft, compensation, and moral concern"(21). The craft motive is found in Ms. Jung's desire to manifest her abilities, expertise, and creativity. Since she joined Avon, she has revamped the company, updating the product line, launching new advertising, and creating a new image. Her compensation motivation is based on her social rewards, such as the money she gets for being Avon's CEO and her recognition as the "50 Most Powerful Women in Business", "50 Women to Watch in Business", and "Best Managers of the Year". Andrea Jung' s moral motives, "[providing] opportunities to make ongoing contributions to the well - being of others" and "[meeting] ethical standards governing a profession" are also brought up in her interview Glass Ceiling. An extraordinary closeness and willingness to help one another are also evident among USC students, alumni, faculty, and staff. USC stresses that "the Trojan Family is a genuinely supportive community. Alumni, trustees, volunteers and friends of USC are essential to this family tradition, providing generous financial support, participating in university governance, and assisting students at every turn". All the personal motives that Ms. Jung possesses have contributed to her professional outstanding and all of those motives are also incorporated in USC' s values. Clearly, Andrea Jung is an example of what USC stands for.

Honorary degrees have been awarded to distinguished individuals "to elevate the university in the eyes of the world by honoring individuals who are widely known and highly regarded for achievements in their respective fields of endeavor". In thirteen years, Andrea Jung " moved a tired brand, [Avon], upmarket and created a global powerhouse" demonstrating her leadership skills and her values as being an ethical CEO concerned for the wellbeing of every single individual that Avon deals with. She is a person who stands on the top of the business world trough successfully grasping the prospectives that globalization offers to organizations by transforming a non - profitable company into a billion dollar business. Since University of California's mission is to develop "human beings and society as a whole through the cultivation and enrichment of the human mind and spirit" awarding Andrea Jung with Doctor of Science degree will make "an explicit statement about the qualities of character and attainment it admires the most"(Freedman, 117).

Sunday, September 24, 2006

Take a Stand,
Think about the Future

Not a lot of individuals are familiar with the fact that the most extreme form of poverty is hunger where people cannot meet their most basic need for food. "Over 16000 children under the age of 5 die from hunger - related causes every single day or one child every five seconds" states Bread for the World. 852 million people across the world are hungry which is ten million more than a year ago. Globalization lead to a greater perception of the problems around the world making more and more individuals aware of their significance and realize that they are the ones that need to stop this trend because children are the future. UNICEF, a non - for - profit organization, mandated by the United Nations to advocate for the protection of children's rights, to help meet their basic needs and to expand their opportunities to reach their full potential, tries to establish children's rights as enduring ethical principles and international standards of behavior towards children. UNICEF insists that "the survival, protection and development of children are universal development imperatives that are integral to human progress".

Having such a significant and positive vision, UNICEF have gained millions of supporters around the world leading to its Webby Awards nomination and being Webby People's Voice winner. Its website captures viewers' attention by making each individual who opens it to feel the hardship and pain of all those disadvantaged children who are victims of war, disasters, extreme poverty, and all forms of violence and exploitation. Relating to the Internet World Statistics, the growth of the Internet usage for the last six years is 200.9% , leading organizations such as UNICEF to create websites which will educate people around the world about their vision and hopefully gain support from individuals who believe that every single person can make a difference in helping the children in need. The criteria according to Webby Awards that makes a website frontrunner are implemented in UNICEF's website. It is successful in informing the audience and it is innovative with a distinctive design and engaging content that gives the viewer the chance to easily interact with its features without having any technological impediments. However, the manner of attaining its goal in helping the children in need by attracting people to give donations or get involved in some of UNICEF's campaigns is not completely clear at first glace. This issue needs to be addressed because according to Web Style Guide making "the tactical design decisions about what [the] audience wants from [ the site], and how to arrange the content to best meet [the] audience's needs" will lead to the overall experience which has the greatest impact on people's experience.

UNICEF's website, starting with a very attention getting animation accompanied by a very deep and sad - sounding song, depicts the state of the world's children in 2006 and how they make their way through life "impoverished, abandoned, uneducated, malnourished, discriminated against, neglected, and vulnerable". Its content is engaging and takes a very important stand that concerns the well - being of children not only in the developing countries such as Cambodia and Nepal but also those in the developed ones such as Great Britain and Venezuela which is exactly what Webby Awards judges seek in a website : "[a] good content [that] takes a stand." It does it in a manner that is informative giving an example of eight children who are struggling in life working or roaming the streets to get their basic necessities and who are looking for help so they can have the opportunity as the rest of the children to attend school and most importantly have a normal life which is adequate for their age. This information is supported by charts, graphs, maps, and tables both as a single file or in parts. Moreover, there is a 2006 State of the World's Children report focusing on the "excluded and invisible" children who have no access to essential services, protection and participation. Those children are called "excluded and invisible" because they are prematurely in adult roles and lack formal identity and parental care. The information on the site is credible because the domain type is for noncommercial purpose; however, when dealing with statistics we need to check how the data was gathered.

The visual design of UNICEF's website is very effective using contrasting colors such as blue, pink, and grey. It also incorporates a lot of photographs which are very helpful in showing the suffering of the disadvantaged children. There are tables that support the message the website conveys which can be customized for a specific continent, country, or even a region and whose data can be chosen from an array of options according to its importance. The web design completely supports UNICEF's framework which is informing people around the world about children in need and it meets users need of finding all the information and statistical data they want about those children. Moreover, it is done in a way that is clear and concise that does not overload the readers with unnecessary information. Web Style Guide emphasizes that "visual and functional continuity in your Web site organization, graphic design, and typography are essential to convince your audience that [the] web site offers them timely, accurate, and useful information". UNICEF is very successful in organizing the content of its website. The spatial organization of graphics and text is logical and creates a balance between the visual impression and the graphic information. In addition, the information on the website is prioritized leading to a more logical transition from one set of data to another.

Webby Awards' understanding of a good structure consists of qualities such "consistent, intuitive and transparent". UNICEF' s website has those qualities because it is consistent with the image of the reader's mind after following the set of information presented by the animation when the website is first opened. These features are reinforced by the ease of use of the navigation which helps the reader get the information they want fast. Consequently, the audience can take full advantage of the information and the features of the site. However, according to Web Style Guide the "rich set of graphic navigation and interactivity links within [the] Web pages [that] will pull users' attention down the page" are missing. The information is not dense but it lacks visual relief which would otherwise make every link stand out and give the first impression of its context. Graphical images are not present which does not draw any attention and motivate the audience to follow those links.

The technology on the site functions extremely well considering the fact that it starts with audio and video effects which is another criterion that Webby Awards judges consider. They highlight that "good functionality makes the experience center stage and the technology invisible". UNICEF's website downloads extremely fast no matter whether it is a dual - up connection or a broadband and the flow from one page to the other is almost invisible leaving the audience highly satisfied. All the links are functional and most important extremely relevant to the idea of the site.

UNICEF's site gives the reader the chance to interact with it by allowing choosing freely what page to be opened next and giving the option to make a personalized table. If the reader is interested in getting the facts fast but not adapted, he or she has the choice just clicking on Fast Facts option. As an example, the audience can get a summarized data about the least developed countries consisting of the most common indicators. Relating to Figure 3.6 , on average 30% of the children between 5 and 11 years of age, do at least one hour of economic activity or at least 28 hours of domestic work.However, to get a more personalized set of data, he or she can choose Customized Statistical Tables. This is a great option because it allows the audience to safe time looking for the exact information that it is interested in. The reader can choose only his home country and then select the statistics he or she wants to be displayed such as under 5 mortality rank or rate. There are only 3 easy and straightforward steps that will lead to the appropriate table. For example, Bulgaria ranks 131st among the countries with a high under - 5 mortality rate.

UNICEF's website is very interactive and an individual can learn a lot of interesting facts about the lifestyle of the children in the developing countries as well as choose whether to become a volunteer for the organization. UNICEF gives a chance to every person to act by joining the World Fit for Children Campaign or becoming a UNICEF UK Youth Voice advisor. Webby Awards criteria emphasize that "good interactivity is more than a rollover or choosing what to click on next; it allows [the] user, to give and receive". UNICEF's audience can observe videos of the profiles of some of the children which represent their unfortunate lives in a way that can be seen, heard, and accordingly felt. In addition, an individual can order a video news package that reveals the state of children in locations such as Cambodia and Uzbekistan. UNICEF's site also offers audio interviews with UNICEF experts such as The UNICEF's Editor of the State of the World's Children report and UNICEF's Senior Advisor on Child Protection. Just with one click, the audience can visit UNICEF Radio, featuring news and in-depth stories from around the world. The numerous options to be involved with UNICEF contribute to the audience overall experience as being a part and in a way responsible for the lives of the disadvantaged children. However, the viewers who intend to get involve have to browse many pages to get the proper one which may discourage them to look further. UNICEF's mission is to inform the audience about the hardship of the children in the developing countries in order to motivate people to aid them. However, UNICEF does not make its point clear because they do not accentuate the fact that they are non -for - profit organization based on external support since they do not provide a link on their homepage of the different options concerned people have. If this flaw is not corrected it may cost a loss of supporters.

What makes a website stand out is the overall experience that the audience gets when it surfs through it. Webby Awards emphasize that it is"more -- or less than the sum of their parts, the overall experience encompasses content, structure and navigation, visual design, functionality, and interactivity, but it also includes the intangibles that make one stay or leave". UNICEF's website is mostly design with this single criterion in mind. It makes the viewer sense something that is so distant to him or her such as the privation and the suffering of "the excluded and invisible" children around the world. Moreover, UNICEF does not only present to the audience these facts but it also provides the solutions of making this world a better place to live by giving options to get involved with the organization. Overall, UNICEF presents a hope for saving the lives of all disadvantaged children around the world.

Friday, September 15, 2006

Is it the Era of New Imperialism or Not?

Globalization involves liberalization of national and global markets through "widening and deepening of the international flows of trade, capital, technology, and information, within a single integrated market" as argued by James Petras and Henry Veltmeyer. Moreover, according to them, globalization does not represent anything but "imperialism in a new dress". In their book Globalization Unmasked: Imparialism in the 21st Century, Petras and Veltmeyer try to indicate that the existing world economics are in a process of creating optimal conditions for "the free play of greed, class interest and profit making" leading to a worldwide terror. One supporter of their understanding of globalization is Toni Solo with whom I completely disagree by criticizing his blog. He argues that globalization requires terror because imperialistic nation such as the Unied States can sustain its leading position only through the means of political chicanery and terror.

Claiming that globalization is imperialistic is like claiming that "liberating slaves imposes a particular lifestyle on the former slaves"*1 . Globalization's most significant purpose is to free trade. Barriers are abolished and restraint on trade is removed, both the opposite of any kind of imposed imperialism. Amartya Sen whose point of view is presented in a blog sees that globalization's accomplishments are very significant. Moreover, free trade fosters prosperity which prevents the tendency of war.


Saturday, September 09, 2006

Internet Advertising
Reach The Unreachable

Internet is the newest of the media types which scope of audience is enormous and keeps growing every single second. However, it is often isolated under the spotlight of the highest intensity medias such as magazine advertisisng and TV advertising and has not been included in the breakdown of advertising spending.

Within such a fast peace and technologically advanced society that we live in, we do not have time and means to waste. The advantages of Internet advertising far excess that of traditional print publications through cost, wider consumer markets, and most importantly the potential of increased profit margins.

In contrast with traditional print publications, while the initial startup costs of an Internet website may be at times comparable to that of a one - time promotion in traditional print media, the costs are considerable lower for the following reasons such as no expense bared for storage, delivery, or repeated design fees for each new promotion. The Internet website is reusable, recyclable, and rarely falls into redundancy with outdated materials. When considering the advantages of Internet - based advertising, the error modification incurs little to no cost to repair typographical errors and wrong promotion dates. It's much easier to fix an oversight like this at the spur of the moment, and only takes a moment.

The availability of the Internet website allows consumer access to information, and more importantly sales twenty - four hours per day, seven days per week, throughout the entire year which is known as "24x7x365" availability. According to Nielson Net Ratings "Online shopping population to double in the next 5 years".

In weighing the advantage of Internet versus traditional print methods, the consumer market potential is extremely limited in the traditional venue with geographical restrictions in most media being only available to local viewing area, and when larger budges allow, national markets can be approached. By comparison, the Internet is extremely the opposite having no physical or geographical limitations and broadening the consumer base on the massive global scale. For an example, sometimes, when a person goes to his e-mail he or she can see different sponsorship links such as Victoria's Secret,, or Time Warner Cable.

Finally, the overall picture can be viewed in financial terms, or specifically, the profit margin. For each dollar that is spent in advertising, a business will take for granted, it will acquire a potential, paying customer. For the traditional advertiser, it may seem like little with two dollars expended to reach a new consumer, but not nearly as impressive as the dime or quarter it required for the Internet advertiser to reach an infinite number of potential customers.

The fact that the opportunity for creativity in online advertising are limitless is one more advantage to consider including target marketing, message tailoring, information access, sales potential, exposure, and speed, when we are to decide what kind of media to use when we want to advertise.

Tuesday, September 05, 2006

An Opportunity for The Developing Countries

Every single action that a human being undertakes requires a tread - off. The same phenomenon is true also for the different processes such as globalization which is the increasing world - wide integration of markets for goods, services, and capital. Globalization leads to the integration of economical, cultural, and political social systems across geographical boundaries and it has been regarded as beneficial providing the key to world economic development. Nevertheless, it can be also destructive decreasing equality between and within nations by threatening employment and living standards.

Deciding whether globalization is more advantageous than disadvantageous requires a prolonged analysis of the trade, the capital movement, the movement of the people, and the spread of knowledge and technology. The gaps between rich and poor countries and between rich and poor people within a country have grown, but the global average per capita income has risen strongly leading to a considerable progress of the developing countries because of the medical advances and improved living standards.

Originating in a small European country, Bulgaria, where people used to struggle through their entire life just to satisfy the need for their necessities, I acknowledge the advantage that globalization conveyed in my country. It brought international capital flows, technological innovations, and lower priced import goods. Bulgaria's GDP has risen by an average of 5.1 % in the last few years considering the fact that Global GDP imcreases by 3.8%. Moreover, Bulgaria is on its way to be accepted as a member of the European Union, an intergovernmental and supranational union, having the chance to benefit from its free trade, foreign investments and incomes and profits, a more diverse European labor market, and exploitation of economies of scale from supplying to a larger market. " The economy has turned 180 degrees from the midst of despair during the mid 1990's with a large economic restructuring and reforms administrated" states It is also mentioned that thanks to the country's increasing popularity, the tourism in the country is valued at $1 billion dollars per year.

Another positives aspects of the globalization are the rapid growth and the poverty reduction in China and India, and other countries that were poor 20 years ago.

The negative aspects of cultural assimilation via cultural imperialism are not as significant and detrimental as the positive outcomes such as economic growth, improved living standards, and increased employment opportunities that will be experienced in every country which goes through the process of globalization.